Display output one screen at a time, Search through output, Edit the command line.

less [options]

| less [options]

Moving Commands:

Commands marked with * may be preceded by a number, N.
Notes in parentheses indicate the behavior if N is given.

e ^E j ^N CR * Forward one line (or N lines).
y ^Y k ^K ^P * Backward one line (or N lines).
f ^F ^V SPACE * Forward one window (or N lines).
b ^B ESC-v * Backward one window (or N lines).
z * Forward one window (and set window to N).
w * Backward one window (and set window to N).
ESC-SPACE * Forward one window, but don&qt;&qt;t stop at end-of-file.
d ^D * Forward one half-window (and set half-window to N).
u ^U * Backward one half-window (and set half-window to N).
ESC-( RightArrow * Left 8 character positions (or N positions).
ESC-) LeftArrow * Right 8 character positions (or N positions).
F Forward forever; like "tail -f".
r ^R ^L Repaint screen.
R Repaint screen, discarding buffered input.

h H Display this help.
q :q Q :Q ZZ Exit.
Default "window" is the screen height.
Default "half-window" is half of the screen height.


Searching Commands:

/pattern * Search forward for (N-th) matching line.
?pattern * Search backward for (N-th) matching line.
n * Repeat previous search (for N-th occurrence).
N * Repeat previous search in reverse direction.
ESC-n * Repeat previous search, spanning files.
ESC-N * Repeat previous search, reverse dir. & spanning files.
ESC-u Undo (toggle) search highlighting.
Search patterns may be modified by one or more of:
^N or ! Search for NON-matching lines.
^E or * Search multiple files (pass thru END OF FILE).
^F or @ Start search at FIRST file (for /) or last file (for ?).
^K Highlight matches, but don&qt;&qt;t move (KEEP position).
^R Don&qt;&qt;t use REGULAR EXPRESSIONS.

Jumping commands:

g < ESC-< * Go to first line in file (or line N).
G > ESC-> * Go to last line in file (or line N).
p &qt; * Go to beginning of file (or N percent into file).
{ ( [ * Find close bracket } ) ].
} ) ] * Find open bracket { ( [.
ESC-^F * Find close bracket .
ESC-^B * Find open bracket
Each &#34;find close bracket&#34; command goes forward to the close bracket
matching the (N-th) open bracket in the top line.
Each &#34;find open bracket&#34; command goes backward to the open bracket
matching the (N-th) close bracket in the bottom line.

m Mark the current position with .
&qt;&qt; Go to a previously marked position.
&qt; Go to the previous position.
^X^X Same as &qt;&qt;.
A mark is any upper-case or lower-case letter.
Certain marks are predefined:
^ means beginning of the file
$ means end of the file

Changing files:

:e [file] Examine a new file.
^X^V Same as :e.
:n * Examine the (N-th) next file from the command line.
:p * Examine the (N-th) previous file from the command line.
­čśí * Examine the first (or N-th) file from the command line.
:d Delete the current file from the command line list.
= ^G :f Print current file name.

Miscellaneous Commands:

– Toggle a command line option [see OPTIONS below].
— Toggle a command line option, by name.
_ Display the setting of a command line option.
__ Display the setting of an option, by name.
+cmd Execute the less cmd each time a new file is examined.

&#33;command Execute the shell command with $SHELL.
|Xcommand Pipe file between current pos & mark X to shell command.
v Edit the current file with $VISUAL or $EDITOR.
V Print version number of &#34;less&#34;.

Most options may be changed either on the command line, or from within less by using the – or — command.
Options may be given in one of two forms: either a single character preceded by a -, or a name preceeded by –.


-a …….. –search-skip-screen
Forward search, skips current screen.
-g …….. –hilite-search
Highlight only last match for searches.
Don&qt;&qt;t highlight any matches for searches.
-h [N] …. –max-back-scroll=[N]
Backward scroll limit.
-i …….. –ignore-case
Ignore case in searches.
Ignore case in searches and in search patterns.
-j [N] …. –jump-target=[N]
Screen position of target lines.
-p [pattern] –pattern=[pattern]
Start at pattern (from command line).
-t [tag] .. –tag=[tag]
Find a tag.
-T [tagsfile] –tag-file=[tagsfile]
Use an alternate tags file.
-y [N] …. –max-forw-scroll=[N]
Forward scroll limit.


-D [xn.n] . –color=xn.n
Set screen colors. (MS-DOS only)
-c -C …. –clear-screen –CLEAR-SCREEN
Repaint by scrolling/clearing.
-P [prompt] –prompt=[prompt]
Define new prompt.
-m -M …. –long-prompt –LONG-PROMPT
Set prompt style.
-n -N …. –line-numbers –LINE-NUMBERS
Use line numbers.
-r …….. –raw-control-chars
Output &#34;raw&#34; control characters.
-s …….. –squeeze-blank-lines
Squeeze multiple blank lines.
-S …….. –chop-long-lines
Chop long lines.
-w …….. –hilite-unread
Highlight first new line after forward-screen.
Highlight first new line after any forward movement.
-~ …….. –tilde
Don&qt;&qt;t display tildes after end of file.
-z [N] …. –window=[N]
Set size of window.


-b [N] …. –buffers=[N]
Number of buffers.
-B …….. –auto-buffers
Don&qt;&qt;t automatically allocate buffers for pipes.
-f …….. –force
Force open non-regular files.
-k [file] . –lesskey-file=[file]
Use a lesskey file.
-o [file] . –log-file=[file]
Copy to log file (standard input only).
-O [file] . –LOG-FILE=[file]
Copy to log file (unconditionally overwrite).


-d …….. –dumb
Dumb terminal.
-e -E …. –quit-at-eof –QUIT-AT-EOF
Quit at end of file.
-q -Q …. –quiet –QUIET –silent –SILENT
Quiet the terminal bell.
-u -U …. –underline-special –UNDERLINE-SPECIAL
Change handling of backspaces.
-x [N] …. –tabs=[N]
Set tab stops.
-X …….. –no-init
Don&qt;&qt;t use termcap init/deinit strings.
-&#34; [c[c]] . –quotes=[c[c]]
Set shell quote characters.
-? …….. –help
Display help (from command line).
-V …….. –version
Display the version number of &#34;less&#34;.

Line Editing:

These keys can be used to edit text being entered
on the &#34;command line&#34; at the bottom of the screen.

RightArrow ESC-l Move cursor right one character.
LeftArrow ESC-h Move cursor left one character.
CNTL-RightArrow ESC-RightArrow ESC-w Move cursor right one word.
CNTL-LeftArrow ESC-LeftArrow ESC-b Move cursor left one word.
HOME ESC-0 Move cursor to start of line.
END ESC-$ Move cursor to end of line.
BACKSPACE Delete char to left of cursor.
DELETE ESC-x Delete char under cursor.
CNTL-BACKSPACE ESC-BACKSPACE Delete word to left of cursor.
CNTL-DELETE ESC-DELETE ESC-X Delete word under cursor.
CNTL-U ESC (MS-DOS only) Delete entire line.
UpArrow ESC-k Retrieve previous command line.
DownArrow ESC-j Retrieve next command line.
TAB Complete filename & cycle.
SHIFT-TAB ESC-TAB Complete filename & reverse cycle.
CNTL-L Complete filename, list all.